Israel is a land of myth and lore, with new discoveries about its past being made all the time.
Join us as we take you back in time and below the surface – who knows what secrets still lie buried to this day? It’s time to don your adventurer’s hat and get to work.
If you love touching History like me ! I am an authorized Antiquities collector by the Israeli Antiquities Authorities, scroll down to see my coin collection.
FIND ON THIS PAGE:
The Great Revolt, the first major rebellion of the Jewish against the Roman rule and ended with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple in 70 AD. Although defeated, the Jewish people were not giving up hope that Jerusalem and the Temple will be rebuilt. Also, the tensions between the Jewish people and the Roman conquerors continued. Therefore, when the Roman Emperor Hadrian decided to build a new city over the ruins of Jerusalem, another revolt erupted. The Emperor’s idea was to build Aelia Capitolina, a Roman colony with a temple dedicated to Jupiter in the same place where the Jewish temple stood. Similar to the Maccabean Revolt, which erupted after Seleucid King Antioch IV Epiphanes ordered the erection of an altar dedicated to Zeus inside the Temple; another desecration of the Temple Mount resulted in another strong revolt. Leader of the rebels was Simon Bar Kokhba, whose nickname Kokhba (“Son of the Star”) was a reference to a Biblical verse announcing redemption: “There shall step forth a star out of Jacob” (Numbers 24:17). The rebels tried to liberate all of Judea and even issued their coins. In 136, after several years of heavy losses on both sides, the uprising was crushed and almost all Jewish towns and villages were razed to the ground. Today, Bar Kokhba’s coin testify about this turbulent and tragic period of Jewish history.
In the ancient world, temple treasuries were similar to national banks today. Coins with national inscriptions were a sign of a state’s sovereignty. Since there was no treasury, in order to mint their coins, rebels over-struck all foreign coins circulating in Judea with Jewish symbols. However, the revolt and coinage were much more than the sign of sovereignty in today’s terms. Jewish people had messianic expectations and considered Bar Kokhba as a messiah. The coins were showing the faith of the rebels that God will deliver his people and rebuild Jerusalem. And that was the message of the rebels not only for their contemporaries but also for future generations.
On all of the coins from Bar Kokhba’s Revolt, there is his name „Simon“ except for a few coins from the first year when the name of Eleazar the Priest was inscribed. These coins abound in Jewish religious symbols such as Holy of Holies, the Ark, tablets of Ten Commandments. Even the agricultural symbols are associated with Succoth, Jewish harvest festival. This particular coin is from the third year of the revolt and has inscribed ’Simon’ on one side within a wreath of branches wrapped around eight almonds. On the other side, „For the freedom of Jerusalem“ is inscribed around an upright palm branch. During the first two years of the revolt, inscriptions on the coins were year 1, or year two of the redemption of Jerusalem (or Israel). However, during the third year, when rebels had to retreat to mountains, the inscription had changed but still conveying the message of freedom and liberation.
What makes this coin an exceptional find is mentioning Jerusalem in the inscription struck over Emperor Trajan Roman coin emphasizing its both patriotic and religious significance. Also, it should be mentioned that the inscription is written in Paleo-Hebrew although the Jewish people used Aramaic as the spoken language at the time. During Babylonian captivity, the Jewish people gradually abandoned their language and accepted Aramaic in everyday’s communication, while Paleo-Hebrew remained as the language of religious writings and educated individuals. However, since the 19th century, Hebrew language was revived as literary language together with revival of the Jewish state. Therefore, the inscription on Bar Kokhba’s coin reveals the same dream of revival that waited for centuries to become true.
The highest percentage in the world compared to the state's area!
By simply scratching the surface of the ground anywhere in Israel, you may uncover a major historical site ! revealing it's Antiquities.
In 63 B.C.E., the Roman general Pompey the Great conquered Jerusalem and Judaea lost its independence. First, it was a vassal state but since the beginning of the first century A.D., it was turned into a Roman province. Judaism was recognized as a legal religion in the Roman Empire but over time the Roman authorities became increasingly intolerant while incompetent Roman governors devastated the province with taxes. At any hint of rebellion, Roman provincial governors responded with executions and ill-treatment of the population.
When the Lord was crucified, written on top of the cross was: „Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Judeans“. in Latin (Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Judaeorum or IUDAEA – I.N.R.I.). The Romans could not tell the difference between Judaism and emerging Christianity but they were bothered by the persistent refusal of both Christians and Jews to recognize the Roman emperor as a god.
The Jewish-Roman relations especially deteriorated during the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero (54-68). As a response to the riots in Caesarea in 66 A.D., Roman procurator Gessius Florus plundered the Temple in Jerusalem trying to turn it into a temple of the Roman Emperor. This sacrelige act provoked a massive rebellion in Jerusalem which led to the first Jewish-Roman War (66-73 A.D.). In the beginning, the Jewish rebels were very successful even crushing the whole Syrian legion. Therefore, Nero decided to send against the rebels Vespasian, an experienced Roman general, and his son Titus as second-in-chief. By 67 A.D. Vespasian and Titus conquered almost the whole Judea. Meanwhile, a Civil War erupted in Rome and the army elected Vespasian as the new emperor. Therefore, Vespasian left to Rome, while his son Titus began the siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The siege lasted four months and ended with devastating consequences. The Temple in Jerusalem was burned and destructed on The 9th Of AV Of the Jewish Calendar ,and according to the historian of that period Josephus, 1.1 million people were killed.
Why Judaea Capta coins were issued?
After the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, the symbol, spirit, heart and soul of the Jewish religion and nation, new Emperor Vespasian started issuing the coins to commemorate his victory. Since Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, the glorification of his victory over Judaea was a sort of political propaganda. Moreover, coins representing the Roman victory over Judaea were struck not only over the reign of Vespasian but also during the reign of his sons, Titus and Domitian. Over 25 years Judaea Capta coins were issued by mints in Rome but also in Judaea and all over the Roman Empire. The coins were made of gold, silver, and bronze.
The Inscriptions on Judaea Capta coins:
This coin is a silver denarius issued 69/70 AD and represents one of the earliest versions of Judaea Capta coins. On the front side of the coin, there is Vespasian’s laureate head and the inscription to denounce his regnal name: „IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG“ – Emperor Caesar Vespasianus Augustus. The backside of the coin depicts a Jewess woman's head resting on hand, seated on the ground and mourning next to the Roman tropaion – a symbol of victory. The woman figure is a personification of Jerusalem or Judaea and there is the inscription „JUDAEA“ underneath. Judaea Capta coins had several variants. Sometimes, Judaea was depicted as a male figure, or woman seating under a palm tree or standing with bounded hands. Instead of tropaion, the Roman victory was also presented as a Roman soldier, Roman Emperor, or Goddess Victory. These coins often had the inscription „JUDAEA CAPTA“ – Judaea captured or „JUDAEA DEVICTA“ – Judaea defeated (conquered). This particular coin is very valuable as one of the earliest versions of Judaea Capta coins. It testifies how important and prestigious this victory was to the Roman public and the Flavian Dynasty.
IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess seated right, head resting on hand in attitude of mourning.
Numismatic excavations perhaps hold the light to coin collection as the oldest hobby to have been pursued by the ancient inhabitants of the world, irrespective of regions. It was so magnificent a productive engagement that the kings took it up as their most favoured filler of leisure time. Coin collection was unanimously qualified as the ‘hobby of kings’ during the 15th and 16th centuries, across kingdoms and countries. In Europe, the list of collectors included the nobility as well. Patrons of coin collection also employed remarkable artists to create replicas of the medals and coins. The demand that grew among the nobility and royals alike pushed further searches for resources and source lands. During the following centuries, there was an eventual shift to raising numismatics as a formal scientific discipline and most of the collections also came under the scanner and control of the state. In Israel too, the rise of coin collection as a widely spread hobby was highly evident. The largest collection in the country was founded by Leo Kadman and Dr Walter Moses who put together their own as the core – this is the Kadman Numismatic Collection. This underscores the entire evolution of coinage, beginning with the Greek coins and including even the ones of today.
With a large collection of antiquities in the land, the Israeli authorities felt the need to bring in a system of regulation to eliminate any possible scope for illegal transactions. The result of this thought was the Antiquities Law of the State of Israel of 1978. In fact, earlier cursors to this could be found as back as in 1884 when the Ottoman Law considered the value of antiquities and its prominence grave enough to necessitate a control over its trafficking. The 1978 Law lays down certain provisions and restrictions to ensure the safekeeping of antiquities. According to this, licensed shops are barred from selling artifacts unearthed after 1978. All antiquities found afterwards are the property of the state and no individual is allowed to carry out searches on his/her own. Dealing in antiquities also requires a license from the Director of Antiquities. Any person in possession of 15 or more artifacts is supposed to inform the Antiquities Authorities. If anybody violates these rules, they will be met with punitive measures ranging between a two-year imprisonment term and a 100,000 pound fine.
While antiquities still remain in game across Israel, there’s a new technology that’s gaining takers fast – as is expected with the modernistic evolutions of science and technology, this shift was indeed in alignment with the times. Israel, through its innovations, has emerged as the leader in the field of drone technology today. Lying at the root of the pioneering drone innovations is the Israeli spirit that works on reworking the already available technology to suit the demands of the land and solve the problems it faces. In a world that’s verging on engagement in drone wars and tapping the maximum of this technology’s potential, Israel’s advance is noteworthy and ahead of others in the league. But, Israel isn’t just limiting drones to military uses. The drones are being used in as diverse a field like agriculture too – they capture high-resolution images of fields that need to be planted and in synchronization with the data provided by sensors, these images enable better planning. Combating against both threats to peace and threats to food security, the drone technology is burgeoning by the day with many private players racing to come up with innovative takes of their own. In an in-demand arena, as was necessary in the case of coin collection, regulations are important. This is precisely why we have a set of rules guarding the production and flying of drones.
Flying commercial drones require a permit each from Israel’s Civil Aviation Authority and the Ministry of Communication. It also requires a license. The pilots must have a full line sight of the UAV all along during the operations. There are certain No-Fly zones where these are not allowed to be flown. In the case of other UA flights, it can be carried out only at a height of 5000 ft or higher if the area is populated. Unless a special authorization is granted, a single operator can fly only one drone using a single remote at a time. There are further rules and regulations laid down by the CAAI which those engaged in drone technology and its flying are to respect and abide by. Utmost care is taken during the process of Registration and Labelling as well.
Hobbies, both old and new, have been quick to catch attention among people – Israel is home to antiquities and the drone. Closely observing the trends of either’s gradual acceptance, much convergence can be noted. Given the history of drone technology and antiquities, there will naturally remain more to be known and discussed. If you wish to know more about the numismatic heritage of Israel and the regulations connected to legally practising the same or the multiple facets of drone technology laws in Israel, feel free to drop a message and I’d love to help you out for free!
Here are some of the latest Drone Technologies.
במאמר זה תמצאו סקירה כללית בתחום מטבעות עתיקים בארץ ובחו"ל. בהמשך המאמר נציג שאלות ותשובות, רקע היסטורי של מטבעות עתיקים בארץ ישראל וכל מה שחשוב לדעת על תחום מטבעות בימינו אנו
איסוף מטבעות אינו שונה מכל תחום אספנות אחר, מרביתנו עוסקים בו בשביל ההנאה הצרופה, ו/או כהשקעה.
במהלך המאה ה-15 וה-16 איסוף מטבעות היה תחביב של מלכים, אך בשנים האחרונות הפך לתחביב פופולרי בכל העולם ובישראל בפרט, ללא קשר למעמד או רמת הכנסה.
שאלה- מה הדרך הכי טובה למכור מטבעות עתיקים?
תשובה- קונים פרטיים: מכירה לקונה פרטי היא האופציה הטובה ביותר בעת מכירת מטבעות עתיקים. אתם תצאו עם הכי הרבה מזומנים, התהליך מהיר, וקונים פרטיים יודעים להעריך נכון את המטבע שלכם. מיצאו קונה מכובד ותוכלו להיות בטוחים שגם תהליך המכירה יהיה חלק.
שאלה- איך לנקות מטבעות עתיקים?
תשובה- בפשטות- לא מנקים!
עדיף לא לנקות מטבעות נדירים, שכן הסרת הפטינה יכולה להפחית משמעותית את ערכם.
על כן, מרבית חובבי המטבעות כמעט אף פעם לא מנקים את המטבעות שלהם. למעשה, 99% מהמטבעות לא עולים בערכם לאחר ניקוי, ההיפך הוא הנכון.
מהם 10 המטבעות הכי יקרים בעולם
מטבע ניקל ראש החירות (1913) - Liberty Head Nickel, Hawai Five-O Star
מטבע דולר דקסטר (1804) - Bust Dollar - Class 1 - Dexter-Porque Specimen
עלה אדר קנדי מזהב של מיליון דולר (2007) - Million Dollar Gold Canadian Maple Leaf
ניקל ראש פסל החירות - מורטון-סמית-אליאסברג (1913) - Liberty Head Nickel, Morton-Smith-Eliaspberg
אדוארד השלישי פלורין (1343) - Edward the 3rd Florin
בראסר דובלון (1787) - Brasher Doubloon
סנט-גאודנס, נשר כפול (1907) - Saint Gaudens Double Eagle
נשר כפול (1933) - Double Eagle
כסף ונחושת (1794/5) - Flowing Hair Silver
מטבע מכסף, דולר 1, וואטרס צ'ילדס (1804) - Silver Dollar Class 1 - Specimen
מטבעות עתיקים בארץ ישראל
בעבר המטבעות עתיקים מארץ ישראל היו אמצעי התשלום העיקרי בשווקים הדבר נבע מכך שמאז העת העתיקה, ועד הקמת מדינת ישראל, להוציא את שמותיהם המקוריים, למטבעות אלו היו מגוון כינויים שונים (תלוי אזור), וכונו אחרת על ידי תושבי ארץ ישראל, אימפריות כובשות עמים נודדים.
מטבעות עתיקים ומגוונים הסתובבו בישראל של אז, בחלקם הוטבעו סממנים של המקום , חלקם הובאו מרחוק לרבות: סמלים, ציורים של מלכים, שרים, קיסרים מצביעים צבאיים. הסיבה העיקרית לכך נבעה וכך שישראל שימשה כמעין נקודת מעבר בין אסיה אירופה ואפריקה. עולי רגל ונוודים, צבאות, פקידים ממשלתיים ומהגרים רבים מתרבויות מגוונות התכנסו בארץ ישראל ונחשפו יחדיו לאותן מטבעות ואמצעי תשלום.
מכירת מטבעות עתיקים בישראל
במידה ואתם מחזיקים מטבעות כאלו בבית, ניתן למכור אותם או להחזיקן באמצעות מעמד של סוחר עתיקות .
ב-2002 הוסדרה חקיקה במדינת ישראל המאפשרת לכל אדם המדווח לרשות העתיקות כי יש ברשותו עתיקות לקבל מעמד של אספן. מעמד מסוג זה יעניק לאספן מטבעות תעודת "אספן עתיקות", בנוסף מקנה לאו "אספן" יכולת רישום לאותן עתיקות שברשותו כרכוש פרטי השייך לו.
ללא ספק איסוף מטבעות עתיקים הוא תחום מעניין מאוד. ההסטוריה של כל פריט ופריט מספרת סיפור מסתורי ומרתק.
הפכו את התחביב שלכם למקצוע יוקרתי ונחשק עם לימודי נומיסמטיקה - דיסציפלינה מדעית העוסקת בחקר איסוף הכסף (שטרות, מטבעות וכו'), עברו ההיסטורי, גיאוגרפי ופוליטי.
במידה וכך הדבר רוצים תוכלו ללמוד זאת בעזרת ספרי לימוד רבים או במוסדות אקדמים בארץ ובחו"ל במוסדות רבים ללימוד נומיסמטיקה כמו המחלקה ללימודי ארץ ישראל וארכיאולוגיה באוניברסיטת בר-אילן
KINGDOM OF MACEDON. Alexander III, 336-323 BC. AR Drachm (4.25 gm) of Lampsakos, 328-323 BC. Head of Herakles wearing lion skin headress / Zeus enthroned, Artemis standing with two torches. Price.1356. XF. High Relief, Lifetime issue. archaeology
THRACE, Istros. IV Century BC. AR Drachm (4.66 gm). Two male heads, one inverted / Eagle on dolphin. SNG.BM.231v. Toned VF. antiquities